questions 1 - 8
· look at the sentences below and at five passages taken from a book about famous management thinkers on the opposite page.
· which passage does each sentence refer to?
· for each sentence 1 - 8, mark one letter a1 b, c, d or e on your answer sheet.
· you will need to use some of these letters more than once.
he has developed his own company to promote his work.
0 a b c d e
1 others in his field think very highly of him.
2 his ideas have spread beyond the business world.
3 he felt that people should be able to enjoy their work.
4 his ideas are more complex than they seem.
5 he did a variety of interesting things before writing his books.
6 his most successful book was written with a colleague
7 he is particularly skilled at forecasting important developments.
8 contact with the military was an early influence on his thinking.
a john adair
adair is the pioneering british thinker in the theory of leadership. he was the first person in the uk to hold a professorship in business leadership and has published a series of influential books on the subject.
despite his quiet appearance, adair has had a colourful life, serving in a bedouin regiment and working on an arctic fishing boat! his initial interest in leadership came from his army experience and he used to lecture at the highly prestigious academy where british army offices are trained. he now works as an international consultant.
b edward de bono
de bono is unusual among major gurus for two reasons: firstly, he was born not in one of the great industrial nations but on the tiny island of malta. secondly, his ideas have reached a wider audience than just managers, so that his books have become essential rending in many different disciplines.
most of de bono s work has been concerned with the way human beings can train themselves to think more creatively. this apparently simple idea has resulted in 37 books and a highly successful career as a lecturer and consultant.
c peter drucker
probably no other single thinker has done as much as drucker to establish management as a serious area of study. certainly, his fellow management thinkers consider him one of the founding fathers of the discipline, and his books and articles are quoted more than those of any other management writer.
his first book was published as far back as 1939, yet he is still writing and teaching. his greatest distinction has been his ability to predict coming trends in business and economics. as a result, his ideas are treated with the greatest respect and interest.
d frederick herzberg
although relatively few contemporary management students will have read his books, herzberg s name is instantly recognisable to anyone who has studied industrial organisations. this is because the american psychologist was responsible for introducing the concept of motivation into management thinking.
as a young man, herzberg became deeply interested in mental illness and the human need for mental and emotional satisfaction. this led him to criticise the approach of many companies to job design, and to argue for the need for job enrichment to stimulate employees efforts.
e tom peters
the american s reputation was created in the i 980s by the spectacular success of one book, in search of excellence, co-written with robert waterman. the two were working together as management consultants and no-one expected their first and only book to end up selling 5 million copies worldwide!
although his ideas have been criticised, peters popularity as a speaker and writer has continued to grow. so much so that peters has created his own business to market books, videos and consultancy based on his work.
questions 9 - 14
· read this text from an article about health clubs.
· choose the best sentence from the opposite page to fill in each of the gaps.
· for each gap 9 - 14, mark one letter a - h on your answer sheet.
· do not use any letter more than once.
· there is an example at the beginning 0.
travel stress brings boom to health clubs
a rapid growth in business travel has provided a lucrative spin-off for british health clubs as companies try to prevent hard-working executives from suffering travel-related stress.
health clubs are fully booked throughout the coming months all around the country and many are planning to expand their facilities.
0 h according to gillie turner, group marketing manager for the champneys group of health clubs, during the last recession executives lost many of their extra benefits as companies cut back. . 9 she says that large companies also seem to have decided that it is no good sending someone to a country like spain as a reward for doing a good job, because they will simply eat too much and flop onto a beach. . 10
champneys, the company acknowledged as the market leader in this field, is now planning to introduce a special "profiting from stress" course, which will run over three days. . 11 jonathon stapleton, general manager of champneys, says that modern corporate life being what it is, most business travellers find that they are having to do the work which - even a year ago - was done by two. 12
to meet this new demand, other health clubs are also thinking of introducing similar schemes. clare brandish, the sales and marketing director of another health club, has noticed a marked change in the clientele at her club. . 13
businesses of all kinds are anxious to reduce absenteeism. . 14 much of the problem is caused by long periods away from home, irregular hours, business entertaining and jet lag.
according to the guild of business travel agents, sales of business-class airline tickets have risen by 12% in the past year, hotel bookings have gone up by 36% and car hire has risen by 24%. dave reynolds, the gbta chief executive, says that the trouble is that the same number of people are being asked to travel more often. he comments that it is no
wonder they need to take a break in a health club.
a it has been calculated that about 40 million working days are lost each year in britain because of stress, ten times as many as are lost 10 industrial disputes.
b this has involved a considerable rise in the number of business bookings, whereas previously most clients came as private inpiduals.
c now they are being restored, as industry realises that the health of its executives is vital.
d but who will benefit most from these developments?
e because of the pressures this imposes, many companies have now decided that it is worthwhile paying for their senior executives to take a proper break and get advice on how to combat stress.
f executives taking part in it will be given massages and health treatments, workouts and a range of talks on how to deal with stress, especially when travelling.
g so what s the reason for this now trend?
questions 15 - 20
· read the following article on recruiting and managing staff and the questions on the opposite page.
· each question has four suggested answers or ways of finishing the sentence, a, b, c and d.
· mark one letter a, b, c or d on your answer sheet, for the answer you choose.
as a manager in the service industry sector, i've looked at hundreds of cvs in my time. they are not necessarily the bland documents some bosses might think they are! they are full of little pointers towards inpiduals personalities and suitability for the job. the first thing i always look at is an applicant s employment record. i check for continuity and stability. if somebody has a long list of previous jobs, all of varying length, alarm bells start ringing. rather than an irregular route from job to job, what i hope to see is stable career progression. what does their career path look like - is it all steps forward, or are there a lot of sideways moves? and i am always pleased to find a family person with children, because in my experience they tend to be responsible and reliable.
i never rely on cvs alone. we get applicants to fill in one of our own application forms. we ask why they've applied, what their aspirations and personal goals are, and also about their interests and hobbies and any clubs they belong to. that gives you a useful insight into their personality and lifestyle. the application form also enables us to test how much people have actually been progressing in their careers, because we ask for details of the salaries they have received for each job.
it s always worth looking at cvs and designing application forms with great care. taking on employees might be rewarding, but it is also a big investment for any business. mistakes in choosing staff can cost companies dear, so it makes sense to spend time ensuring you get the right person.
in the service sector, one of the aims of companies is to maintain and improve customer service, and this is achieved partly through low staff turnover. you need to take on people who understand that, and will want to stay. that s why, when you've taken staff on, the next thing is getting the best out of them.
my management style comes from the days when i took over my first business, an ailing road haulage firm which i was certain i could turn into a profitable company. the first thing is to treat others as you d like to be treated yourself. as soon as i took over the business, i talked to everybody inpidually, and looked for ways to make sure their particular skills benefited the company.
i didn't have much experience then of managing people, but above all i always tried to be fair and honest with everyone. as a result, i think the staff knew that and accepted my decisions, even if they didn't agree with them all. also, bosses must be able to communicate. you also need to create team spirit, and build on the strength of the team. i explained my plans for the company to all the staff, and let them all know what i needed from them. the lorry drivers responded brilliantly, and were the key to turning the business round. they understood that we had to develop a professional reputation, and from then on the days of poor quality deliveries were over.
lastly, i am a great believer in profit-sharing. it takes a team to make a company work, so profits should be shared by all. job satisfaction is important, but it doesn't pay the rent. shared profit and bonuses help to strengthen team spirit by giving everyone a common goal that they work towards together.
15 what fact does the writer hope to learn from applicants cvs?
a that they have experience of many different jobs
b that their careers have developed steadily
c the opinion their employers had of them
d whether they are married or single
16 the writer says the application form is useful because it
a reveals something of the applicant s character.
b gives information about the applicant s family.
c explains what skills the applicant has for the job.
d shows how much the applicant wants to earn.
17 according to the writer, why are cvs and application forms so important?
a interviewing people is an expensive process.
b they indicate whether applicants really want the job.
c they indicate whether applicants are efficient or not.
d employing the wrong people can be disastrous.
18 one reason why the writer was successful in her first business was that
a she was used to dealing with people.
b she was open with the staff.
c the business was already doing well when she started.
d the staff agreed with all her decisions.
19 the writer believes profit-sharing is a good idea because
a it encourages a competitive spirit.
b everyone earns the same salary.
c everyone shares the same aim.
d it creates job satisfaction.
20 which would make the best title for this text?
a profit-sharing as motivation
b how i turned a business round
c people - the key to business success
d the importance of a well-presented cv
questions 21 - 30
· read the article below about a method of learning languages for business people.
· choose the best word from the opposite page to fill each gap.
· for each question 21 - 30 mark one letter a, b, c or d on your answer sheet.
· there is an example at the beginning 0.
language learning for the busy executive
if you've ever been told by your boss to improve your knowledge of a foreign language you'll know that ……0…… doesn't come quickly. it generally takes years to learn another language well and constant ……21…… to maintain the high standards required for frequent business use. whether you study in a class, with audiocassettes, computers or on your ……22…… sooner or ……23…… every language course finishes and you must decide what to do next if you need a foreign language for your career.