Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.
For questions 1-7, mark
Yfor YES if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N for NO if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG for NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Types of Climate
Climate is the combination of temperature, moisture, wind, and sunshine at a place over a period of many years. Weather is made up of atmospheric conditions during a few hours or days. The weather may be rainy on a certain day. But that place may usually have a warm, dry, sunny climate. We learn about the climate of a place by studying its temperature, moisture, wind, and sunshine from season to season and year to year.
Temperature and the amount of rainfall are the two most important elements of climate. Others are humidity air moisture, cloudiness, fog, sunshine, wind, storms, and air pressure.
There are many different types of climate on earth. Climates of the world can be classified according to their latitudes and the plants that grow there. Different kinds of plants need different amounts of heat and moisture for growth. The vegetation of a region tells us about temperature and rainfall conditions over a long period of time.
Tropical climates are found in regions between 35N and 35S latitude. In the tropical rain forest nearest the equator conditions are warm and rainy all year long, and there is a thick cover of trees. Places farther north and south of the equator have a tropical wet-and-dry climate. There the forests are not so dense, and many trees lose their leaves in the dry season. Along 23.5N and 23.5S latitude there are vast regions of tropical desert climate, where very little vegetation can grow.
Subtropical climates are usually found between 30 and 40 North and South latitudes. The subtropical western coasts of the continents have a Mediterranean climate. Summers are hot and dry; winters are mild and wet. On the subtropical eastern coasts of continents the climate is humid subtropical. Summers are hot, and winters are mild. There is enough rainfall in all seasons for forests.
Mid-latitude climates occur between 40 and 60 NS latitudes. Strong westerly winds blow in the mid-latitudes. The climate of the west coast of North America is mild and rainy most of the year. It helps the growth of fine timber forests. Some places in the mid-latitudes do not receive moisture because of mountain barriers or their great distances from the oceans. Humid continental climates cover large mid-latitude area in eastern parts of the continents. They are forest climates with cold winters and warm summers. Most of the rainfall comes in the summer.
High-latitude climates occur from 60 to the poles, North and South. In the high latitudes it is very cold in winter and cool in summer. The short summers are warm enough for forests of evergreen trees. Greenland and Antarctica have a polar climate, where great ice caps exist because of year-round freezing.
Highland climates are cooler than the surrounding lowlands because of the effects of altitude. Highland climates are found on the high mountains of the world, even on the equator. In the tropics and mid-latitudes different kinds of vegetation grow in zones up the slopes of mountains to the permanent snowfields.
The Causes of Different Climates
The differences in the climate from place to place are caused by climate controls. The major climate controls are latitude, altitude, land and water bodies, ocean currents, and storm centers.
Latitudes make climates colder toward the north and south poles high latitudes than at the tropics near the equator low altitudes. Low-latitude regions remain warm throughout the year. At higher latitudes there are greater differences between winter and summer temperatures.
Altitude affects climate by lowering temperatures as the height above sea level increases. At high altitudes the air is less dense and does not absorb and hold as much heat. On the average, the temperature drops about 2 degrees Celsius for each 300 meters of altitude about 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit for each 1,000 feet. Thus snow can remain on mountainlike Fujiyama when nearby lowlands are warm.
Land and water bodies influence climate. Land warms up rapidly in summer and cools off rapidly in winter. But large bodies of water change temperature slowly, with the seasons. Mid-continental places in middle and high latitudes have a continental climate. Summers are warm and winter cold. Island and seacoasts usually have milder winters and cooler summers because of the water surfaces nearby.
Ocean currents affect climate in many parts of the world. Some currents carry warm water to cool regions; others carry cool water to warm regions. The Labrador Current is cold. The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current. It carries warm water from the tropical Atlantic toward the coasts of northwestern Europe. As a result, winters in the British Isles and in Westam Europe are warmer than other regions in the same latitudes.
Winds carry heat and moisture and therefore affect climate. Winds that come from lands in high latitudes are cold and dry. Some winds change direction with the seasons. In southern Asia winds called monsoons are dry and cool in the winter, when they blow from the land. In the summer they blow from the ocean and produce heavy rainfall.
Climate and the Water Cycle
Water enters the atmosphere by evaporation from land and water surfaces. Winds carry water vapor and clouds to other areas. There the moisture is returned to the earth in the form of rain or snow. Much of the water falls on land and runs off to the sea in rivers. But some moisture enters soil. It helps growing plants or builds up the groundwater supply. The constant movement of water from land to sea to air and back again is called the water cycle. The amount of water available for farming, industry, and many other uses differs from one climate to another. People try to overcome these differences by using water resources wisely. The water cycle can be controlled in part for a short time by storing water in reservoirs, irrigating land, draining wetlands, or pumping water from wells.
Climate and People
Climate influences people's comfort, well-being, and activities in many ways. Most people do not work as well in a hot, moist climate as in a cooler, drier climate. Extremely high or low temperatures are uncomfortable. Certain diseases are more common in some climates than in others. It is difficult to determine what is the best or ideal climate for human beings. People differ in their reactions to climate because of their inpidual characteristics and attitudes.
The amount and kind of clothing people wear is determined partly by climate. Clothing for cold climates gives protection against wind and cold. Less clothing is needed in warm climates. There are many types of special clothing for wind, cold, sun, rain, and snow.
People build houses mainly for shelter from the climatic elements. Carefully planned houses take advantage of sunlight, wind direction, and other factors to obtain a maximum of comfort as well as protection. The amount of heating or air-conditioning needed in a building depends upon the construction of the building as well as the outside climate. Many modem inventions have made it possible for people to live comfortably in any kind of climate.
Climate affects the food supply by setting limits for profitable production of crops and animals. Climate influences cattle raising and forestry because it determines where grasslands and forests will grow. Winds, clouds, and storms have to be considered in travel by land, sea, or air and even in the launching of satellite. Most industries take special attention to protect their products against weather and climate during manufacture, storage, and shipment.
1. Climate is the combination of temperature, moisture, wind and sunshine at a place over a certain period of a year.
2. Weather refers to atmospheric conditions during a few hours or days.
3. There are dense forests all over the tropical regions.
4. Mediterranean climate is characterized by its hot summers and mild winters.
5. Highland climates could be found all over the world except on the equator.
6. Nowadays people are working on designs of new buildings that are climate- friendly.
7. The water cycle refers to the constant movement of water from land to sea to air and back again.
8. Besides temperature and the amount of rainfall, elements such as and air pressure are also very important in the making of climate.
9. Greenland and Antarctica have a polar climate, where exist because of year-round freezing.
10. Through ___________ for profitable production of crops and animals, climate can also affect the food supply.
1.N 由题干中的关键词climate定位到文章首段首句：Climate is the combination of temperature，moisture，wind，and sunshine at a place over a period of many years.题目中的a year与原文的many years不符，由此得出题目说法错误。
2.Y 由题于中的关键词weather定位到文章首段第二句：Weather is made up of atmospheric conditions during a few hours or days，题目用refer to同义替换了原文中的is made up of，由此得出题目说法正确。
3.N 由题干中的关键词tropical定位到小标题Tropical Climates下面第四句：There the forests are not so dense，and many trees lose their leaves in the dry season，题目与此相反，由此得出题目说法错误。
4.Y 由题干中的关键词Mediterranean定位到小标题Subtropical Climates下面第二、三句：The subtropical western coasts of the continents have a Mediterranean climate，Summers are hot and dry;winters are mild and wet，题目是原文的同义替换，由此得出题目说法正确。
5.N 由题干中的关键词highland climates定位到小标题High-altitude Climates下面第二句：Highland climates are found on the high mountains of the world， even on the equator，题目认为赤道上没有高原气候，与原文相反，由此得出题目说法错误。
6.NG 题干中的关键词new buildings，climate-friendly在文章中无法定位，题目说法在原文中未提及。
7.Y 由题干中的关键词water cycle定位到小标题Climate and the Water Cycle下面的第七句：The constant movement of water from land to sea to air and back again is called the water cycle，题目是原文的同义替换，由此得出题目说法正确。
由题干中的关键词temperature，rainfall，making of climate定位到文章第二段： Temperature and the amount of rainfall are the two most important elements of climate.Others are humidity air moisture，cloudiness，fog，sunshine，wind， storms，and air pressure，由此得出答案。
9.great ice caps
由题干中的关键词Greenland and Antarctica定位到小标题High-latitude Climates下面的末句：Greenland and Antarctica have a polar climate，where great ice caps exist because of year-round freezing，由此得出答案。
由题干中的关键词food supply定位到文章末段首句：Climate affects the food supply by setting limits for profitable production of crops and animals，由此得出答案。